2015 May. Therapeutic efficacy of macrolides, minocycline, and tosufloxacin against macrolide-resistant Mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumonia in pediatric patients. 2013 Feb. 51(2):723-4. Pediatr Neurol. [Medline]. 2014 Jul-Aug. 34 (4):895-911. J Pediatr. https://www.cdc.gov/pneumonia/atypical/mycoplasma/hcp/antibiotic-treatment-resistance.html, American College of Osteopathic Emergency Physicians, American Association for Respiratory Care. Diseases & Conditions, You are being redirected to
Analysis of clinical value of CT in the diagnosis of pediatric pneumonia and mycoplasma pneumonia. 65(4):761-6. The organism can be excreted from the respiratory tract for several weeks after the acute infection; therefore, isolation of the organism may not indicate acute infection. An acute infection of the respiratory tract with atypical pneumonia: a disease entity probably caused by a filtrable virus. J Infect Chemother. Respirology. Kasper DL, Braunwald E, Fauci AS, et al, eds. J Clin Microbiol. Purulent sputum is characteristic of pneumonia caused by bacterial CAP pathogens and is not usually a feature of pneumonia caused by atypical pathogens, with the exception of Legionnaires disease. Chlamydophila pneumoniae (Chlamydia pneumonia) is the causative organism in up to 10% of community-acqu… Mycoplasma pneumonia and its complications. Clinical, etiologic, and histopathologic features of Stevens-Johnson syndrome during an 8-year period at Mayo Clinic. [Medline]. Mustafa MI, Al-Marzooq F, How SH, Kuan YC, Ng TH. The organism responsible for mycoplasmal pneumonia, M pneumoniae, is a pleomorphic organism that, unlike bacteria, lacks a cell wall, and unlike viruses, does not need a host cell for replication. 2003 Jun. 2009 Sep. 41(3):159-66. 2010 Jun.  Peterson discovered the phenomenon of cold agglutinin in 1943. Rhabdomyolysis: An Unusual Presentation of Mycoplasma pneumoniae Infection in an Adult-A Case Report and Literature Review. [Medline]. Clin Nucl Med. Mycoplasma pneumoniae (see mycoplasma pneumonia) is the causative organism in up to 20% of community acquired pneumonia and is often seen in paediatric populations and young adults 3. [Medline]. The red hepatization phase is then followed by gray hepatization. [14, 15] : An indistinct, abnormal opacity on chest radiographs, Patchy, ground-glass, linear, or reticular opacities on chest radiographs, Neutropenia and fever of unknown origin (for which ultra–thin-section CT scanning may be helpful). [Medline]. [Full Text]. Bacteria that can cause pneumonia include Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Chlamydophila (Chlamydia) pneumoniae, Chlamydophila (Chlamydia) psittaci, and Legionella pneumophila. On CT, findings of C pneumoniae are widely variable. In immunosuppressed patients, outbreaks of isolated cases of respiratory virus infections with atypical presentations have been reported. [Medline]. [Medline]. 2012 May. Guy W Soo Hoo, MD, MPH is a member of the following medical societies: American College of Chest Physicians, American College of Physicians, American Thoracic Society, Society of Critical Care Medicine, California Thoracic Society, American Association for Respiratory CareDisclosure: Nothing to disclose. 2012 Sep 22. The breakdown of the Mollicutes class, which includes the Mycoplasma genus, is presented in the image below. Because many manifestations of Legionella are similar to other typical and atypical pneumonias, clinical symptoms or radiologic evidence is of little value for diagnostic purposes. 2014 Jun. 2015 Aug. 57 (4):773-5.  In high-resolution chest CT of community-acquired M. pneumoniae infection, findings include lobule centricity nodules and bronchial wall thickening. The types of bacteria that cause it tend to create less severe symptoms than those in typical pneumonia. [Medline]. Curr Opin Pulm Med. Gullsby K, Storm M, Bondeson K. Simultaneous detection of Chlamydophila pneumoniae and Mycoplasma pneumoniae by use of molecular beacons in a duplex real-time PCR. The most common atypical pneumonias are caused by three zoonotic pathogens, Chlamydia psittaci (psittacosis), Francisella tularensis (tularemia), and Coxiella burnetii (Q fever), and three non-zoonotic pathogens, … [Medline]. However, it tends to be more severe in patients with sickle cell anemia. Associated hilar adenopathy may be present. 2017 Nov 13. Clin Infect Dis. The pathogenicity of M pneumoniae has been linked to the activation of inflammatory mediators, including cytokines. Trop Doct. April 13, 2018; Accessed: December 28, 2018. 2002
JAMA Ophthalmol. Lee SW, Yang SS, Chang CS, Yeh HJ, Chow WK. Diseases & Conditions, 2002
2010 Dec. 26 (12):966-8. Walking pneumonia is how some people describe a mild case of pneumonia. Neumayr L, Lennette E, Kelly D, Earles A, Embury S, Groncy P, et al. Eaton MD, Meiklejohn G, VanHerick W. Studies on the etiology of primary atypical pneumonia… Mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumonia: radiographic and high-resolution CT features in 28 patients. The texture varies with the amount of aeration, being more heterogeneous with aeration and more homogeneous with dense consolidation. Mycoplasma pneumoniae is a common cause of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP), and the disease usually has a prolonged, gradual onset. 2009 Feb. 13(1):77-9. 234753-overview
[Medline]. The infiltrates in Mycoplasma pneumonia can be unilateral, multilobar, or bilateral. Most of the time, walking pneumonia is caused by an atypical bacteria called Mycoplasma pneumoniae, which can live and grow in the nose, throat, windpipe (trachea) and lungs (your … 2018:6897975. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2010 Feb. 85(2):131-8. Francisco Talavera, PharmD, PhD Adjunct Assistant Professor, University of Nebraska Medical Center College of Pharmacy; Editor-in-Chief, Medscape Drug ReferenceDisclosure: Received salary from Medscape for employment. 97(7):943-7. J Exp Med. Medscape Education, Advancing the Diagnosis of Pneumonia and Sepsis: Updates for the Critical Care Specialist, 2002
Age-specific Mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumonia-associated myocardial damage in children. Reimann HA. Go to Community-Acquired Pneumonia, Bacterial Pneumonia, Mycoplasma Infections, and Imaging Atypical Bacterial Pneumonia for more information on these topics. Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis. 2004 May. Pediatr Int. Michael Joseph Bono, MD, FACEP is a member of the following medical societies: Alpha Omega Alpha, American College of Emergency Physicians, Medical Society of Virginia, Society for Academic Emergency MedicineDisclosure: Nothing to disclose. Rahimian M, HosseiniB M. Serological study of Bordetella Pertussis, Mycoplasma Pneumonia and Chlamydia Pneumonia in Iranian hajj pilgrims with prolonged cough illnesses: A follow-up study. [Medline]. Medscape Education, Advancing the Diagnosis of Pneumonia and Sepsis: Updates for the Critical Care Specialist, 2002
Shakeel Amanullah, MD Consulting Physician, Pulmonary, Critical Care, and Sleep Medicine, Lancaster General Hospital Copete AR, Aguilar YA, Rueda ZV, Vélez LA. Mycoplasma pneumoniae (see mycoplasma pneumonia) is the causative organism in up to 20% of community acquired pneumonia and is often seen in pediatric populations and young adults 3. Radiographics. The organism has two properties that seem to correlate well with its pathogenicity in humans. [Medline].  Macrolide-resistant M pneumoniae has emerged in adult community-acquired pneumonia Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine. Chest computed tomography scan shows ill-defined, airspace infiltrate in the left lower lobe. Infections due to Mycoplasmas. [Medline]. [Full Text]. Exp Ther Med. In 1944, Eaton was credited with discovering a specific agent, coined Eaton's agent, as the principal cause of primary atypical pneumonia. Pereyre S, Goret J, Bébéar C. Mycoplasma pneumoniae: Current Knowledge on Macrolide Resistance and Treatment. Clin Infect Dis. Azumagawa K, Kambara Y, Murata T, Tamai H. Four cases of arthritis associated with Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection. In cases of severe emphysematous lung disease, clinicians may tend to underestimate the presence of infiltrates on chest radiographs.The radiographic characteristics of Legionella, Mycoplasma, and Chlamydia pneumonias are discussed below. 2010 Mar. Atypical Pneumonia: Updates on Legionella, Chlamydophila, and Mycoplasma Pneumonia. Underlying parenchymal lung abnormalities usually predispose patients to pneumonia. 2008 Aug. 50(4):511-3. Rhabdomyolysis associated with antimicrobial drug-resistant Mycoplasma pneumoniae. J Chin Med Assoc. Walking pneumonia is … Biosci Trends. Atypical pneumonias: current clinical concepts focusing on Legionnaires' disease. 70 (1):1-9. Smith R, Eviatar L. Neurologic manifestations of Mycoplasma pneumoniae infections: diverse spectrum of diseases. [Medline]. Although M pneumoniae is a common cause of pneumonia, only 5-10% of infected patients actually develop pneumonia. Atypical pneumonia. Eugene C Lin, MD is a member of the following medical societies: American College of Nuclear Medicine, American College of Radiology, Radiological Society of North America, Society of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular ImagingDisclosure: Nothing to disclose. Cunha BA. [Medline]. Patients with typical CAP classically present with fever, a productive cough with purulent sputum, dyspnea, and pleuritic chest pain. [Medline]. Atypical Pneumonia caused by the bacteria Legionella pneumophila can be fatal, if the patient has a very poor immune system, severe diabetes, or severe kidney failure; Additional and Relevant Useful Information for Atypical Pneumonia: Atypical Pneumonia should be distinguished from other types of pneumonia… Pediatrics. Mycoplasma pneumonia is usually mild and results in a rapid resolution of any radiologic findings. 73(2):200-3. Legionella pneumonia, Q fever, and psittacosis are atypical … ), On initial chest radiographs, the predominant finding is a unilateral pattern of alveolar infiltrates or bronchopneumonia. [Medline]. Respir Med. Bacterial etiology of acute myringitis in children less than two years of age. Kurata M, Kano Y, Sato Y, Hirahara K, Shiohara T. Synergistic Effects of Mycoplasma pneumoniae Infection and Drug Reaction on the Development of Atypical Stevens-Johnson Syndrome in Adults. Agarwal J, Awasthi S, Rajput A, Tiwari M, Jain A. Atypical bacterial pathogens in community-acquired pneumonia in children: a hospital-based study. Fibrin and exudative cells accumulate, appearing on radiographs as a clear zone adjoining the alveolar and acinar cells. 2009 Apr. Atypical pneumonia makes up a significant proportion of community-acquired pneumonia. Comparison of Efficacy of Antimicrobial Agents Among Hospitalized Patients With Mycoplasma pneumoniae Pneumonia in Japan During Large Epidemics of Macrolide-Resistant M. pneumoniae Infections: A Nationwide Observational Study. High titers of cold agglutinins in patients with primary atypical pneumonia were discovered accidentally. ABSTRACT. Pneumonia : More than 3 million cases of pneumonia occur annually in the United States. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. Persistent cough, and cough with sputum is the most common symptom of bacterial pneumonia.. December 2015. 2013 Oct. 41(5):1716-23. [Medline]. 2012 Jun. In 20% of cases, resolution takes longer than 9 weeks. Song M, Zhang Y, Li S, Zhang C, Tao M, Tang Y, et al. Mycoplasma disease and acute chest syndrome in sickle cell disease. Atypical pneumonia makes up a significant proportion of community-acquired pneumonia. Postgrad Med. Onari S, Okada T, Okada T, Okano S, Kakuta O, Kutsuma H, et al. Mycoplasma pneumoniae is a common cause of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP), and the disease usually has a prolonged, gradual onset. Legionella pneumophila infection presenting as headache, confusion and dysarthria in a human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) positive patient: case report. Many patients infected with M pneumoniae remain asymptomatic, but patients who become symptomatic develop a respiratory infection which can be lingering and quite bothersome. Clin Pediatr (Phila). , (Scans of atypical bacterial pneumonia are depicted below.). Hong Kong Med J. Acute cholestatic hepatitis revealing Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection without lung involvement in an adult patient. Guy W Soo Hoo, MD, MPH Clinical Professor of Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles, David Geffen School of Medicine; Director, Medical Intensive Care Unit, Pulmonary and Critical Care Section, West Los Angeles Healthcare Center, Veteran Affairs Greater Los Angeles Healthcare System 2013:457161. Diagram of the Mollicutes class, to which the Mycoplasma genus belongs. [Medline]. Atypical pneumonia, also known as walking pneumonia, is any type of pneumonia not caused by one of the pathogens most commonly associated with the disease. Moon HJ, Yang JK, In DH, Kwun DH, Jo HH, Chang SH. Lung imaging with chest radiography has been the standard method of diagnosing pneumonia; however, lung ultrasonography has the potential to more accurately and efficiently diagnose pneumonia, as well as pleural effusions, pneumothorax, pulmonary embolism, and pulmonary contusions. Matsubara K, Morozumi M, Okada T, Matsushima T, Komiyama O, Shoji M, et al. 19(7):842-50. Curr Opin Pulm Med. [Medline]. 2014; 20(3):247-51 (ISSN: 1531-6971) Basarab M; Macrae MB; Curtis CM. Chou SH, Prabhu SJ, Crothers K, Stern EJ, Godwin JD, Pipavath SN. [Full Text]. 7 (1):16442. Radiologic resolution of Legionella pneumonia may take 6-12 months.  and transverse myelitis. Clinical symptoms and signs for the diagnosis of Mycoplasma pneumoniae in children and adolescents with community-acquired pneumonia. 39(2):109-11. In 1938, Reimann described the first cases of mycoplasmal pneumonia in man and coined the term "primary atypical pneumonia… [Medline]. Ultrasonography can help differentiate between consolidation and effusion. Mayo Clin Proc. Computed tomography (CT) scans are increasingly being used in clinical practice. It is especially associated with patients living in close community settings. Quioc JJ, Trabut JB, Drouhin F, Malbrunot C, Vallet-Pichard A, Pol S, et al. Trop Biomed. However, in clinical practice, ultrasonography's usefulness may be limited to the identification and quantification of parapneumonic effusions. 1997 Dec. 25(6):1340-2. [Full Text]. Eaton MD, Meiklejohn G, VanHerick W. Studies on the etiology of primary atypical pneumonia: a filterable agent transmissible to cotton rats, hamsters, and chick embryos. 2009 Feb. 21(2):220-1. Pediatr Infect Dis J. Li CM, Gu L, Yin SJ, et al. J Chin Med Assoc. for: Medscape. Pneumonia is predominantly a clinical syndrome. 1938. Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther. 2016 Feb. 10 (1):7-13. Characteristic pulmonary findings on physical examination include the following: 1. New York: McGraw-Hill; 2005. Daxboeck F. Mycoplasma pneumoniae central nervous system infections. Khan FY, Sayed H. Rhabdomyolysis associated with Mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumonia. 10:CD009175. 1996; 99 (1):123-8, 131-2 (ISSN: 0032-5481) In atypical pneumonia, causative organisms are difficult to isolate, so careful clinical assessment is essential in arriving at a … . 12(2):237-44. Oishi T, Narita M, Ohya H, et al. Cardinale F, Chironna M, Chinellato I, Principi N, Esposito S. Clinical relevance of Mycoplasma pneumoniae macrolide resistance in children. 11 (4):1271-1274.  as well as pediatric pneumonia. https://profreg.medscape.com/px/getpracticeprofile.do?method=getProfessionalProfile&urlCache=aHR0cHM6Ly9lbWVkaWNpbmUubWVkc2NhcGUuY29tL2FydGljbGUvMTk0MTk5NC1vdmVydmlldw==. Macrolides in Children With Community-Acquired Pneumonia: Panacea or Placebo?. [Medline]. 38 (1):45-58. Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol. [Full Text]. ), Mild Legionella pneumonia may manifest with bilateral involvement of the lung parenchyma. Pediatr Int. [Full Text]. [Medline]. Cramer L, Emara DM, Gadre AK. Although this patient smokes, this lesion most likely has an inflammatory etiology, given the clinical symptoms and a recent, normal CT scan. Macrolides (e.g., azithromy… MP is known as an atypical pneumonia and is sometimes called “walking pneumonia.” It spreads quickly in crowded areas, such as schools, college campuses, and … Lee H, Yun KW, Lee HJ, Choi EH. 2009 Oct. 20(7):595-8. 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