The Zara-class was an Italian heavy cruiser design of the Regia Marina from the early 1930s, considered by many to be one of the best cruiser designs of World War II. Spalato reached a speed of 12.63 knots (23.39 km/h; 14.53 mph) from 1,370 PS (1,350 ihp), while Sebenico made 12.81 knots (23.72 km/h; 14.74 mph) from 1,598 PS (1,576 ihp). [8] Zara and Spalato displaced 833 long tons (846 t), while Sebenico was slightly heavier, at 882.6 long tons (896.8 t). This new cruiser would become the Zara class. Construction began in the 1920s as part of the Regia Marina’s plan to construct six heavy cruisers. All rights reserved. To supplement their steam engines, each vessel had an auxiliary sailing barquentine rig with two masts and a sail area of 275.6 m2 (2,967 sq ft). The Trentos had been designed to the limitations of the Washington Naval Treaty, which stated that cruisers had to be 10,000 tons or less, and armed with 8-inch (200 mm) guns or smaller. Zara and Spalato were also armed with four torpedo tubes. [6], The first two ships of the Zara class—Zara and Spalato—were 62.71 meters (205 ft 9 in) long overall and 55 m (180 ft) long between perpendiculars. The meeting concluded with the consensus that the new vessel should be built as a purely torpedo-armed vessel, with no armor and no heavy guns. As a result, it was decided to base a new design on the Trento, but with speed sacrificed to improve protection. You could also do … The others ships were called FIUME, GORIZIA and POLA. She shared the light construction of her sisters and the improved technology of the Zaras. [3] She was joined by Fiume, laid down at Stabilimento Tecnico Triestino on 29 April 1929, launched 27 April 1930, and completed 23 November 1931; Pola at OTO Livorno, laid 17 March 1931, launched 5 December 1931, and completed 21 December 1931;[3] and Gorizia, launched 28 December 1930 at OTO Livorno. Andressen prepared three more designs, as seen in the table below. Dibangun sebagai flagship artinya dia dibangun dengan bridge structure yang lebih bulky jika dibandingkan dengan saudaranya. [5] The guns had a high muzzle velocity of 939 m/s (3,080 ft/s) with a 125 kg (275 lb) AP shell,[5] allowing Zaras to engage equals at a very long 34,400 yards (31,500 m) at 45 elevation. Almost no other cruisers were equipped with two armoured decks and two armoured belts. The removal of the superstructure made placement of radar difficult, and in the end none of the class would ever carry one. Pöck pointed out that the ship should not include heavy guns, and that two 12 cm (4.7 in) guns without armor would be sufficient; the only armor the ship was to have was a curved protective deck. This would prove to be a fatal omission. All three ships were seized as war prizes by the victorious Allied powers after the war in 1918, and all three were awarded to Italy in 1920. In addition, the engines and boilers used in Zara and her sister ships could not tolerate as high a pressure as those in Zieten, and their boilers consumed coal excessively. #ShipTrivia RM Pola ( Zara-class Heavy Cruiser ) Pola adalah flags... hip dari Zara-class cruisers. Background on Zara Class Cruisers. The Zara class was a group of four heavy cruisers built for the Italian Regia Marina (Royal Navy) in the late 1920s and the early 1930s. Romako based his design on the German Zieten, though the German vessel was significantly faster than the Zara class, in part owing to the fact that Zieten had a longer, finer hull and was more lightly built. These included one 12 cm (4.7 in) 40-cal. The Zara class was a group of four heavy cruisers built for the Italian Regia Marina (Royal Navy) in the late 1920s and the early 1930s. The Zara-class was an Italian heavy cruiser design of the Regia Marina from the early 1930s, considered by many to be one of the best cruiser designs of World War II. [10], The ships were modified extensively in an attempt to rectify their machinery problems. (as built) 4 × 40mm/39 caliber Vickers-Terni Model 1915 (4x1)[5] AA Alternatively, if submerged tubes could not be made to work on the broad side, the ship should include two deck-mounted launchers with at least five torpedoes apiece, four heavy guns, and a speed sufficient just to keep pace with the ironclads of the main fleet. Zara class cruiser (Italy) Gorizia painted in camouflage patterns (1942): Class overview; Operators: Regia Marina In commission: 1931-1944: Completed: Zara, Fiume, Pola, Gorizia: General characteristics A typical Washington design had 76 mm in its armour belt, and less on other areas of the ship. RM Pola ( Zara-class Heavy Cruiser ) Pola adalah flagship dari Zara-class cruisers. Just better. The first two ships of the class, Zara and Fiume were ordered under the 1928–1929 construction programme, with a third ship, Gorizia ordered as part of the 1929–30 p… All trademarks are property of their respective owners in the US and other countries. [12], All three ships received several 47 mm (1.9 in) guns in the mid-1880s; these included a Hotchkiss revolver cannon on their bows and four single-barrel quick-firing guns. (1937) 8x37mm/54 caliber Breda[6]. The Zara class was a class of three torpedo cruisers built for the Austro-Hungarian Navy in the late 1870s and early 1880s; they were the first large torpedo-armed warships built by Austria-Hungary. Sign in to disable ALL ads. The Zaras were essentially an improved Trento class tasked with dealing with the latest French designs. [5] The result was excellent watertight integrity and protection.[9]. (1940) 14x100mm (6x2, 2x1)[4] To achieve this, the Zaras were almost 2000 t (at standard displacement) over the 10,000 ton limit,[3] even if fully loaded (because the modest amount of the fuel load) they displaced no more than, for example, British heavy cruisers. guns, along with her two bow torpedo tubes. [11][15] In 1917, Zara's armament consisted of two 6.6 cm guns, four 47 mm 33-cal. She was 64.91 m (213 ft 0 in) overall and 57.2 m (188 ft) between perpendiculars, with a beam of 8.24 m (27 ft 0 in) and a draft of 4.2 m (13 ft 9 in). The Zara Class Heavy Cruisers (Zara, Fiume, Gorizia and Pola) were the most armored heavy cruisers built up to that time and even later, very few classes of cruisers equaled or exceeded the Zara in protection. However, they carried enough armor to resist these weapons, featuring a belt that was 5.9″ thick. The Genova-class was a class of Italian Heavy Cruiser, compromising 2 ships, the Regina Marina Genova, and the Spanish Galicia. © Valve Corporation. 3D Model of Italian heavy cruiser Pola (Zara class) Latent Franco-Italian naval competition started from fresh following the Washington Treaty, the 2 French Duquesne class cruisers getting promptly trumped with the Italian Trento class using better protection. Sebenico was withdrawn from guard duties in 1918 and assigned to the torpedo school. Despite arriving after the construction of the Zara class, Bolzano’s structure was nearly identical to the Trento Class cruisers. He also reported on the construction and sea trials of the British-built torpedo-aviso [4], On 26 March, Pöck held a meeting to discuss the proposals. [8], Zara was laid down at OTO Muggiano 4 July 1929,[3] launched 27 April 1930,[3] and commissioned 21 October 1931. R.N. Detail and Conversion sets. HMAS Hobart took part in the East African Campaign, B… By 1901, man of these guns had been removed, leaving just two 12 cm guns, one 6.6 cm (2.6 in) gun, two 47 mm 44-cal. [9] Each ship had a crew of 13 officers and 135 enlisted men. Zara-class heavy cruiser "Zara", weigh anchor! Quite the same Wikipedia. Listen to the audio pronunciation of Zara-class cruiser (Italy) on pronouncekiwi. [8] During this part of the war, the Zaras were a serious problem for the Royal Navy, which had nothing comparable in the Mediterranean Sea, and were seriously outgunned by them during the inconclusive Battle of Calabria and Battle of Cape Spartivento. Fiume Heavy Cruiser, Zara Class Tauro Model 1:400 201 + Actions Stash. One odd feature was the aircraft catapult on the bow, which made it impossible to prepare for launch while firing, perhaps a minor consideration. Romako took over the design process in 1878, and prepared the design for Zara, construction of which began on 1 August that year. They argued that an attempt to build what they described as a "universal battle-ship" (i.e., the Schiffbau-Kommission's first proposal) was ill-advised, since torpedoes were still in the developmental phase and a vessel of that type would be expensive and risky, considering the limited budgets of the time. Intended to reach a speed of at least 15 knots (28 km/h; 17 mph), none of the vessels were able to steam that fast. Turrets and barbettes were as well protected by over 100 mm armour. Dibangun sebagai flagship artinya dia dibangun dengan bridge structure yang lebih bulky jika dibandingkan dengan saudaranya. These thicknesses were reasonably good against destroyer and light cruiser weapons (typically between 5 in {127 mm} and 6 in {150 mm}), but insufficient against the 120 kg shells that 203 mm fired, capable of piercing even 150 mm at medium range. The ships were a … [11], When the Second World War broke out, Gorizia, Zara, and Fiume[8] were organized into 1st Cruiser division, Pola serving as flagship for 2nd Cruiser Division. While originally commissioned by Spain in 1927 to revitalize its ageing pre-dreadnought fleet, the resulting design was eventually ordered by Italy as well as a one-off heavy cruiser that would later inspire the Udine-class. Sortieing! All three ships had their propeller shafts lengthened, and their original bronze screws were replaced with larger steel propellers, though this did not improve performance. Los cruceros pesados de la Clase Zara fueron una clase de cruceros construidos para la Regia Marina Italiana, entre finales de los años 20 y principio de los 30.Fueron considerados como uno de los mejores tipos de su categoría y diseño. Sebenico served in a variety of auxiliary roles over the following five years, before joining Spalato in the artillery school in 1903; the three ships served in their training roles until the outbreak of World War I in July 1914, at which point they became guard ships. Barrels for Italian Heavy Cruiser. [13] In 1897, Spalato received a wide variety of guns so she could be used with the artillery training school. During the late 1930s, the … After Pola (in company with Fiume and Zara, serving as escort to the battleship Vittorio Veneto) was hit by a torpedo from a TSR Swordfish from Formidable, which stopped her, the rest of the 1st Division (at this time Gorizia was in reserve) ran in to protect her. The ship would be capable of a speed of at least 15 knots (28 km/h; 17 mph) from a twin-screw propulsion system, and it would not be equipped with a sailing rig. [17] That year, Sebenico took part in the only significant period of fleet service, when she was sent to the island of Crete to participate in an international naval demonstration during Greco-Turkish War. The Italian Zara Class of four heavy cruisers served during the Second World War. The Zara class was a class of three torpedo cruisers built for the Austro-Hungarian Navy in the late 1870s and early 1880s; they were the first large torpedo-armed warships built by Austria-Hungary. guns, and one 37 mm gun. Discover (and save!) With these traits together, Bolzano cut through the waves at a top spee… Ironically, at beginning of 1941, a modest British attack, at night, over Naples hit Zara. [citation needed] Four ships of the class were completed, Zara, Fiume, Pola and Gorizia, all of which saw extensive service during the war. Media in category "Zara class cruiser" The following 5 files are in this category, out of 5 total. Articles with unsourced statements from November 2014, Articles incorporating text from Wikipedia, Italian naval ship classes of World War II, https://military.wikia.org/wiki/Zara-class_cruiser?oldid=4443710, Pages using duplicate arguments in template calls. Specifications for Zara class. gun and two 25 mm (0.98 in) Nordenfelt guns. They were too slow to be used as fleet scouts or flotilla leaders, and their gun armament was too weak for them to be able to protect torpedo boats from torpedo-boat destroyers. After repairs were effected, she joined the harbor defense at Pola. guns in single mounts, along with one 7 cm (2.8 in) 15-cal. All three Zara-class ships were protected with a thin 19 mm (0.75 in) armored deck. The boilers were ducted into a single funnel located amidships. guns, four 47 mm 44-cal. The first two ships were armed with deck-mounted torpedo tubes, while Sebenico received an experimental tube in her bow, submerged below the waterline. The commissions were primarily concerned with several fundamental concerns, including whether the ship should be armored or not, whether it would only use the Whitehead torpedoes or it would also carry towed torpedoes, the propulsion system and whether it would include a sailing rig or not, and the speed the ship should be capable of reaching. A suggestion was made to await developments in torpedo technology and to incorporate the weapons into the next ironclad that they could secure funding from Parliament to build. Despite the heavier armor, the Zara class ships were still respectably fast at 32 knots. Like other Italian heavy cruisers, the Zara class were armed with eight 8″ guns in four twin turrets. [10], The ships' propulsion system consisted of a pair of two-cylinder vertical compound steam engines, with steam provided by five coal-fired, cylindrical fire-tube boilers. [8], France immediately responded with a new heavy cruiser of her own, Algérie, which was a close match for the Zaras when she launched in 1934. ZARA/FIUME Delphis Models 1:700 DM01 . The lead ship of the class, Zara, was laid down in July 1929. Designed with a sophisticated armament, good survivability, and competitive speed, she was among the most advanced heavy cruisers in service at … [2][3], The Schiffbau-Kommission recommended building a ship with heavy armor to protect it from enemy fire, one or two 10-centimeter (3.9 in) guns in the bow, deck-mounted launchers for the Whitehead torpedoes, and towed torpedoes to be used defensively against ramming. Zara was the lead ship of the Zara class, a group of four heavy cruisers built for the Italian Regia Marina in the 1930s. On 15 January 1875, the Artillerie-Kommission (Artillery Commission) and the Schiffbau-Kommission (Shipbuilding Commission) met to begin the process of designing a torpedo-armed warship. Trentos had sacrificed armor for speed, allowing them to make high-speed dashes up and down the long Italian coastline, which would otherwise be difficult to defend from Italy's widely separated naval bases. [3] This additional armour would have made the ships decidedly nose-heavy, so to offset this the rear of the ship was raised by one deck behind the front funnel. (as built) 16 × 100mm (3.9 in)/47 caliber (8x2) AA The class comprised three ships, Zara, Spalato, and Sebenico; the last vessel was built to a slightly different design, and is sometimes not counted as a member of the class. SMS Zieten for the Imperial German Navy. [3] In 1937, the aft 100 mm mounts were replaced by 37 mm/54 caliber Bredas[10] more useful for close defense, and in 1940, the 40 mm Vickers were replaced by 37 mm Bredas, also. There had been a move to design a 15,000-ton cruiser, but this was not possible because of treaty restrictions. The Piaggio P.6bis originally carried was later replaced by M.41s, CANT 25ARs, MF6s, and in 1938, by Ro.43s. Even a won battle might seriously deplete Italian naval strength, something they were not prepared to address through sheer numbers. Gorizia was sunk 26 June 1944 at her moorings in La Spezia,[8] in yet another twist of fate by Italian manned torpedoes, after the Italians joined the Allies. All three ships were sold to the RAN (Royal Australian Navy), Phaeton was renamed Sydney in 1939, Amphion was renamed Perth and Apollo Hobart after a few years of British service under their launch names. Pola (1941) - (actual Zara class … 1 Basic 2 Upgrade 3 Second Upgrade 4 Quotes 4.1 Hourly Notifications (Kai) 4.2 Seasonal Quotes 5 Notes 6 Trivia 7 CG 8 See Also Zara Zara Class Heavy Cruiser Statistics HP 42 (44) Firepower 36 (58) Armor 36 (54) Torpedo 0 (28) Evasion 33 (59) AA 18 (62) Aircraft 6 ASW 0 Speed Fast LOS 10 (36) Range Long Luck 10 (48) Resource Consumption Fuel 45 Ammo 60 Build Time … On 30 January, Shipbuilding Engineer Andressen began working on the projet, which at that time included a pair of 24 cm (9.4 in) guns in an armored casemate. guns, two 37 mm 23-cal. The British battleships quickly sank all three Italian cruisers and two of their escorting destroyers in a one-sided gunfight, the only reaction being the aimless fire of a 40mm AA cannon from the already wrecked Zara. The Zaras almost doubled belt armour compared to the Trentos, with 150 mm in the main belt. [citation needed]. Zara-class heavy cruiser, Zara! Sign in to disable ALL ads. Formaban esta clase los buques: Zara… Josef von Romako, the Chief Constructor of the Austro-Hungarian Navy, pointed out that such a vessel would have to be very large to allow it to reach high enough speeds for it to be able to use torpedoes effectively. gun, and two 37 mm (1.5 in) guns; two of the 9 cm guns were removed to make room. Through the 1870s, the Marinekommandant (Navy Commander) of the Austro-Hungarian Navy, Friedrich von Pöck, could not secure sufficient funding for construction of ironclad warships. [citation needed] Four ships of the class were completed, Zara, Fiume, Pola and Gorizia, all of which saw extensive service during the war. In that year, her armour had the only opportunity to display its effectiveness, when this ship was hit by three bombs, launched by American bombers, but the main deck resisted them all and the ship continued to fire against the high-flying bombers. [17], The ships saw no action during the war, owing in large part to the nature of the Adriatic campaign. The torpedo tubes were located singly, two in the bow and at either beam in deck-mounted launchers. [9][11] Between 1898 and 1901, all four ships were re-boilered. Sep 23, 2019 - Italian heavy cruiser "Fiume" was a Zara class cruiser. [6] All these guns were reasonably modern, especially at their time, even if not outstanding performers. The design was prepared by Josef von Romako, the Chief Constructor of the Austro-Hungarian Navy, after a lengthy design process throughout the 1870s. This scheme followed, in fact, not quite a cruiser layout, but that of a small battleship. [5], Pöck rejected all of Andressen's proposals, since none of them incorporated the characteristics specified in the March 1875 meeting. On trials, Zara reached a speed of 14.29 knots (26.47 km/h; 16.44 mph) from 1,800 metric horsepower (1,800 ihp), by far the fastest member of the class, though still below her design speed. Zara-class cruiser (1879). Select Language Site search Donate Site search Donate The weight limitation made it impossible to design a ship with those guns and armour able to stop shells of the same caliber. [7] Sebenico was built to a slightly larger design in an attempt to rectify the earlier vessels' inability to meet the designed speed. The Austro-Hungarian Navy and its primary opponent, the Italian Navy, both adopted cautious strategies, since neither wanted to risk its fleet in the narrow waters of the Adriatic Sea, where naval mines and fast, torpedo-armed craft could operate effectively. The launchers would be supplied with six torpedoes each. May 8, 2019 - This Pin was discovered by Winston Gould. In general, in order to be effective, armour should be roughly the same thickness as the diameter of the shells fired against it. In the meantime, Spaun made his report on British naval activities, which included the completion of Vesuvius and the introduction of twin-screw propulsion. The Torpedoversuchs-Kommission recommended a vessel with submerged torpedo tubes, a ram bow, deck and waterline belt armor, and two heavy gun turrets if it were possible to install them without compromising the ability of the ship to use its torpedoes effectively. gun, two 15 cm (5.9 in) 26-cal. [14] Sebenico was similarly modified in 1903; in addition to two 12 cm guns, she acquired one 6.6 cm gun, four 47 mm 33-cal. guns, one 47 mm 44-cal. In January 1877, Training ship duties continued through the early 1910s. However, overall anti-aircraft performance was not good, due to the slow tracking process and an inadequate fire control system, although the weapons were acceptable. R.N. The Zaras shared their main armament with the last of the three Trentos, the Bolzano. Zara was transferred from Cattaro Bay to Pola in June 1917, but while en route, suffered a serious explosion that caused significant damage to her bow. Thank you for helping build the largest language community on the internet. The design was prepared by Josef von Romako, the Chief Constructor of the Austro-Hungarian Navy, after a leng… Zara — Italian Tier VII cruiser.. During the pre-war period, she was one of the best heavy cruisers in the world. Listen to the audio pronunciation of Zara class cruiser on pronouncekiwi. The gun layout was identical, but it adopted the improved, high-caliber 203mm gun of the Zaras. By the 1890s, they were reactivated for training ship duties, and in 1897 Sebenico took part in an international naval demonstration off Crete, where she sank a Greek blockade runner. ZARA was the lead ship of 4 Zara class italian cruisers. 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